The Canadian Pacific Railway Essay Contest

The Begbie Canadian History Contest: 1994 to 2013
© The Begbie Contest Society

How to search by topic

This test bank contains all of the questions used in the Begbie Canadian History Contests from 1994 to 2013. The multiple choice questions are given in chronological order, followed by the short essay and long essay questions.

The test bank is searchable by topic. Questions on annexation, for example, can be found by typing *annexation. The "*" is necessary to find questions and documents that deal with the subject. If you just type the word annexation you will call up all occurrences of the word.

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Search Terms
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Short Essay Search Terms
*Jacques Cartier essay
*Fraser canyon essay
*Western settlement essay 1
*BC history essay
*Western settlement essay 2
*Labour essay
*Western settlement essay 3
*Protective tariff essay
*Metropolitanism essay
*First World War essay 1
*Women's suffrage essay 1
*First World War essay 2
*Women's suffrage essay 2
*First World War essay 3
*First World War essay 4
*First World War essay 5
*CPR essay
*Depression essay 1
*Depression essay 2
*Depression essay 3
*Hong Kong essay
*Second World War essay 1
*Second World War essay 2
*Second World War essay 3
*Second World War essay 4
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*Social security essay
*Taxation essay
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*de Gaulle essay
*Regionalism essay
*Just Society essay

Long Essay Search Terms
*Potlatch essay
*Women's suffrage essay 2
*Sinking of the Titanic essay
*Komagata Maru essay
*Crucified Canadian essay
*Berlin/Kitchener essay
*Introduction of Prohibition essay
*Failure of Prohibition essay
*Bathing suit essay
*Bilingual currency essay
*Jewish immigration essay
*Zoot suit riots essay
*Cold War essay
*Queen Elizabeth Hotel essay
*Discrimination essay
*Avro Arrow essay
*Flag debate essay
*Amchitka essay
*Summit Series essay
*Women jurors essay


Multiple Choice Questions


*Champlain, *First Nations, *drawings, *1600s



Samuel de Champlain made this sketch of the 1609 battle between the French and the Iroquois to illustrate his memoirs. This sketch is important to historians because
A. sketches are less biased sources of information than memoirs.
B. sketches often reveal valuable details on the position of troops, their dress, the terrain etc.
C. little of the information revealed by the sketch can be found by consulting other sources.
D. the sketch gives us an accurate estimate of the number of men who fought on each side in the battle.


*Champlain, *quotations, *historians, *1600s

"No other European colony in America is so much the lengthened shadow of one man as Canada is of the valiant, wise, and virtuous _______________."
Samuel Eliot Morrison

The name which best completes the above sentence is that of
A. James Cook
B. Jacques Cartier
C. Samuel de Champlain
D. Lord Selkirk


*interpretations, *Garneau, *Parkman, Groulx, *historians, *quotations


The three statements dealing with the conquest of Canada in 1760 are good examples of historical
A. fact.
B. denial.
C. objectivity.
D. interpretation.


*totem poles, *Friendly Cove, *Cook, *drawings, *1770s



One puzzle facing historians is whether or not totem poles stood outside northwest coast native homes prior to European contact. These sketches were made in 1778 by John Webber, an artist on Captain James Cook's ship. They show carved poles inside, but not outside, homes at Friendly Cove. Which yet-to-be-discovered evidence would most likely persuade an historian that totem poles were to be found outside the homes? [Note: Spanish explorer Juan Perez visited the coast of Vancouver Island in 1774.]
A. mention of such poles in a diary kept by one of Perez's crew members.
B. mention of such poles in the memoirs of one of Perez's crew members.
C. mention of such poles in an interview Perez gave at the end of his voyage.
D. a twentieth century drawing depicting Perez's arrival at Friendly Cove.


*Cook, *Friendly Cove, *First Nations, *paintings, *1770s

Charles W. Jefferys likely intended his painting of Captain Cook at Nootka to show
A. the dramatic meeting of two cultures.
B. the superiority of native technology.
C. the threat the natives felt upon meeting the British sailors.
D. the indifference of the native people to the arrival of Cook.


*United Empire Loyalists, *Careless, *historians, *quotations, *1780s, *1790s

"On one hand they brought to Canada [from 1783-1795] a conservative outlook, a quick distrust of any new idea that might be called republican, and a readiness to make loyalty the test for almost everything. On the other, they themselves represented a declaration of independence against the United States, a determination to live apart from that country in North America. As a result, they helped to create not only a new province, but a new nation."
J. M. S. Careless, Canada, A Story of Challenge, 1953

The immigrants referred to in the above passage came directly from
A. France.
B. England.
C. Ireland.
D. the United States.


*Vancouver, *First Nations, *paintings, *1790s

The above painting, completed in 1939, depicts George Vancouver's voyage to the north Pacific Coast in
1792-94. In 1972, it was considered for display at the University of British Columbia but was rejected because it showed
A. natives depicted in an inferior position.
B. Captain Vancouver as the central figure.
C. a chief sitting with his back to the viewer.
D. semi-clad natives dressed in their traditional costumes.


*Mackenzie, *paintings, *1790s

The accompanying illustration shows
A. Lief Ericson reaching the northern tip of Newfoundland in 1000 A.D.
B. Sieur de La Salle reaching the Gulf of Mexico in 1682.
C. Samuel Hearne reaching the Arctic Ocean in 1771.
D. Alexander Mackenzie reaching the Pacific Ocean in 1793.


*Fraser, *Fraser River, *paintings, *1800s

In 1808 Simon Fraser canoed down the Fraser River from Prince George to Musqueam at the river's mouth. Charles W. Jefferys completed the accompanying painting in 1928. Which conclusion least likely explains Jefferys' reason for completing the painting? Jefferys
A. wanted to show Fraser's foolishness.
B. wanted to show the bravery of Fraser and his crew.
C. was impressed by the canoeing skills of the voyageurs.
D. wanted to capture the adventure and drama of Canadian history.


Jefferys' painting of Simon Fraser is
A. a primary source.
B. a secondary source.
C. an exact depiction of Fraser's voyage.
D. based on a contemporary photograph.


*immigration, *cartoons, *1820s

The British cartoon entitled "The Emigrant's Welcome to Canada"
A. encourages emigration to Canada.
B. paints an optimistic portrait of Canada.
C. pokes fun at the ill-equipped emigrants.
D. encourages emigrants to move to the USA instead of to Canada.


*Fort Kamloops, *HBC, *maps, *1830s

Use the accompanying map to answer the next two questions.


The dotted line on the accompanying map represents
A. major routes used by the Hudson's Bay Company.
B. the routes explored by Lewis and Clark.
C. the routes followed by Simon Fraser and David Thompson.
D. the major routes to the gold fields.


Fort Kamloops is found at
A. 1.
B. 2.
C. 3.
D. 4.


*Oregon Territory, *boundary disputes, *UK, *USA, *John Bull, *Uncle Sam, *Polk, *bias, *cartoons, *1840s

This cartoon appeared in the British magazine Punch in 1846. It shows John Bull (left) and US president James Polk (right) at the time of the Oregon Territory Dispute. The information which is least helpful in revealing the British bias of the cartoonist is
A. the fact that John Bull has a smaller hat than James Polk.
B. John Bull's mild amusement at the aggressive stance taken by James Polk.
C. the whip in James Polk's back pocket, indicating that the USA still tolerates slavery.
D. the use of sarcasm, calling James Polk "Yankee Noodle."


*railways, *Montreal, *Toronto, *paintings, *1850s


The "Age of Steel" began soon after the
A achievement of responsible government (1848)
B establishment of Confederation (1867)
C entry of BC into Confederation (1871)
D Riel Rebellion (1885).


*Ottawa, *Canada East, *Canada West, *Queen Victoria, *maps, *1850s

In 1857 Queen Victoria selected this city to be the capital of Canada West and Canada East.
A. A.
B. B.
C. C.
D. D.


*gold rush, *manifest destiny, *BC, *USA, *songs, *1850s

The following stanza appeared in a song composed in British Columbia in 1858:
"Soon our banner will be streaming,
 Soon the eagle will be screaming.
 And the lion — see, it cowers,
 Hurrah boys, the river's ours."

The "banner" in the above song is most likely the
A. tricolour.
B. fleur-de-lis.
C. Union Jack.
D. Stars and Stripes.


*gold rush, *Fraser River, *BC, *illustrations, *1850s

The above drawing was taken from the December 1860 issue of Harper's New Monthly Magazine. The people shown boarding the British Columbia-bound ship were likely inspired by the
A. British Columbia gold rush.
B. opening of the colony to settlers.
C. discovery of sea otters along the coast.
D. building of the Canadian Pacific Railway.


*gold rush, *BC, *book covers, *1850s


This book cover deals with a gold rush in
A. 1849.
B. 1858.
C. 1885.
D. 1898.


*Ottawa, *cartoons, *1850s



The cities in this cartoon are competing for the location of
A industry.
B railways.
C government.
D telegraph lines.


*Canada East, *Canada West, *rep by pop, *graphs, *1840s, *1850s, *1860s

The accompanying graph best illustrates why
A. Canada West supported representation by population in 1841.
B. Canada East supported representation by population in 1861.
C. Canada West supported representation by population in 1861.
D. Canada East supported the union of Canada East and Canada West.


*immigration, *Canada East, *Canada West, *New Brunswick, *Nova Scotia, *population, *statistics, *1860s
 
The colony which felt most threatened by the surge of immigration between 1841 and 1861 was
A. Canada East.
B. Canada West.
C. New Brunswick.
D. Prince Edward Island.


*manifest destiny, *imperialism, *Rupert's Land, *quotations, *1860s

"So I look upon Prince Rupert's Land and Canada, and see how an ingenious people... are occupied with bridging rivers and making railroads and telegraphs to develop, organize and create and preserve the great British provinces of the north... and I am able to say, 'It is very well; you are building excellent states to be hereafter admitted to the American Union.' "
William H. Seward, 1861

Seward is speaking as an
A. imperialist.
B. capitalist.
C. industrialist.
D. engineer.



*Civil War, *Confederation, *railway, *painting, *1860s

British Troops on the March-Canada, The London Illustrated News, 15 March 1862, TMPL

In March 1862 Britain sent 15,000 troops to defend Canada at the time of the American Civil War.
As the St. Lawrence River was frozen the troops marched overland from Saint John, New Brunswick, to Canada.
This event revealed the need for
A. better roads.
B. better snowshoes.
C. an intercolonial railway.
D. a large standing army in Canada.  



*Cariboo Wagon Road, *gold rush, *BC, *Royal Engineers, *Fraser River, *paintings, *1860s

The accompanying painting of the construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road was most likely intended to show
A. the difficulty of constructing roads in the Fraser Canyon.
B. the role played by the Royal Engineers in the construction of the road.
C. the natural beauty of the Fraser Canyon.
D. the importance of the Royal Engineers in bringing law and order to the British Columbia frontier.


*Confederation, *Jean Baptiste, *Quebec, *cartoons, *1860s

The artist who drew the cartoon "The Effect of Confederation," showing a man sitting on a chamber pot [a portable container kept in a bedroom and used as a toilet] was
A. biased in favour of Confederation.
B. biased against Confederation.
C. neutral in the debate about Confederation.
D. indifferent to the debate about Confederation.



*Confederation, *cartoon, *1860s

Based on La Conféderation Quadrille Danse Nationale, Montréal, 1865

Lower Canada pulls a Grand Trunk Railway cart driven by Upper Canada and carrying first-class passengers Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, while New Brunswick hovers overhead. The cart is followed by a caribou representing Hudson Bay, and leading figures representing "our religion, our language, our customs and our laws." The phrase "my country, my love" appears at the lower left.

This cartoon
A. supported Confederation.
B. opposed Confederation.
C. showed Lower Canada in a leadership role.
D. portrayed all regions as equal partners in Confederation.



*Confederation, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *New Brunswick, *Nova Scotia, *Ontario, *Quebec, *Prince Edward Island, *cartoons, *1860s

This 1865 cartoon produced in Quebec
A. supports Confederation.
B. opposes Confederation.
C. supports union with Britain.
D. supports union with the USA.


*McGee, *manifest destiny, *Confederation, *1860s

"They [the United States] coveted Florida, and seized it; they coveted Louisiana, and purchased it; they coveted Texas and stole it; and then they picked a quarrel with Mexico, which ended with their getting California ... had we not the strong arm of England over us, we would not now have had a separate existence."
Thomas D'Arcy McGee, 9 February 1865

McGee is referring to this American concept:
A. federalism.
B. reciprocity.
C. Fenianism.
D. Manifest Destiny.



*Confederation, *Lincoln, * Civil War, *cartoon, *1860s

GOOD MR. LINCOLN: “Set your minds at rest, dear neighbours. Spare yourself needless expense! From now on, the deepest peace must reign between us! You dread to see my large army unoccupied! Don’t be afraid, for I will use it to clean the streets of New York. There are more than fifty years of work. Therefore you can demolish those fortifications that are suffocating you!”
JEAN-BAPTISTE: “Just don’t bother me, will you! Do you take me for a fool?” [tr.]

The cartoonist suggests that a prime factor favouring Confederation was the
A. fear of a civil war in Canada.
B. cost of fortifying the border.
C. threat of an American invasion.
D. abolition of slavery in the United States.



*Ottawa, *quotations, *1890s

"...a sub-arctic lumber-village converted by royal mandate into a political cockpit..."
Goldwin Smith, 1892

Goldwin Smith was referring to
A. Ottawa.
B. Halifax.
C. Vancouver.
D. Quebec City.


*Ottawa, *cartoons, *1860s

The artist who drew the accompanying cartoon, published on November 10, 1865, is suggesting that Ottawa was
A. the best choice for the capital of Canada.
B. a poor choice for the capital of Canada.
C. a good compromise choice for the capital of Canada.
D. a better choice than Quebec City for the capital of Canada.



*Fenians, *Confederation, *painting, *1860s

The Orangeville Militia was mobilized in 1866 to
A. gain Canada’s independence from Britain.
B. defend Canada from a threatened Fenian invasion.
C. support the Fenian movement for Irish independence.
D. support the separation of Canada West from Canada East.



*Fenians, *Ridgeway, Battle of Ridgeway, *paintings, *1860s

This 1866 painting of the Battle of Ridgeway shows that the Fenians
A. were likely to lose the battle.
B. were a serious threat to Canada.
C. were disorganized and poorly led.
D. had more cannons than Canada.


*British North America, *USA, *Russia, *maps, *1860s

The accompanying map was published in Harper's Magazine. The year was likely
A. 1808.
B. 1866.
C. 1871.
D. 1905.


*Fenians, *American Civil War, *songs, *1860s

"We are a Fenian brotherhood, skilled in the art of war,
And we're going to fight for Ireland, the land that we adore;
Many battles have we won, along with the boys in blue,
And we'll go to capture Canada, for we've nothing else to do."

The Fenians referred to in the above passage attacked Canada because
A. they wished to strike at Great Britain by attacking Canada.
B. Canadians mistreated Irish immigrants.
C. they were ordered by the U. S. president to attack.
D. they were unemployed after the American Civil War.


*Confederation, *Fenians, *reciprocity, *rep by pop, *Ontario, *CPR, *1860s, *1870s

The correctly paired province and its prime motive for favouring Confederation is
A. Ontario - representation by population.
B. Nova Scotia - fear of a Fenian invasion.
C. Prince Edward Island - a transcontinental railway.
D. British Columbia - a reciprocity treaty with the USA.


*Alaska, *John Bull, *Uncle Sam, *cartoons, *1860s

John Bull (Britain, in the background) is shown between Uncle Sam (left) and the Russian Tsar (right). American Secretary of State Seward is emerging from the cellar.
Which one of the following statements about the 1867 cartoon is false?
A. John Bull approved of the sale of Alaska to the USA.
B. Uncle Sam was prepared to pay Russia $7,200,000 for Alaska.
C. The block of ice carried by the Tsar of Russia represents Alaska.
D. Russia, the USA and Britain were interested in the future of Alaska.


*Confederation, *Newfoundland, *Labrador, *maps, *1860s

In 1867 the shaded crown colonies shown on the map
A. joined Canada.
B. did not join Canada
C. applied for maritime union.
D. desired annexation to the United States.


*Confederation, *maps, *1860s, *1940s

The darkest area should be dated
A. 1841
B. 1864
C. 1867
D. 1870


*Constitution, *BNA Act, *1860s

The basic ideas of the British North America Act are contained in the phrase
A. "liberty or death."
B. "liberty, equality, fraternity."
C. "peace, order and good government."
D. "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."


*Confederation, *rep by pop, *statistics, *1860s

Study the pie graph showing the population of Canada on July 1, 1867. The graph helps explain why
A. Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia favoured a legislative union.
B. Ontario wanted a federal union.
C. George Brown led the fight for representation by population.
D. the strongest support for Confederation came from the Maritime colonies.


*Confederation, *UK, *Britannia, *Queen Victoria, *medals, *1860s

The medal pictured was issued to commemorate Confederation on July 1, 1867. The four women facing the seated Mother Britannia represent
A. Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba.
B. Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick.
C. Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia.
D. Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick.


*fur trade, *stamps, *1860s

Canada's first postage stamp (shown above) was designed to
A. stress Canada's role as a colony of Britain.
B. show Canadian concerns about the environment.
C. show how important the sun is to a northern nation.
D. recognize the importance of the fur trade in the history of Canada.


*Nova Scotia, *Confederation, *Tupper, *Howe, *cartoons, *1860s

This cartoon depicts Charles Tupper, Joseph Howe and Miss Acadia (Nova Scotia). The cartoonist clearly wants Nova Scotia to
A remain a British colony.
B join Canada.
C join the USA.
D become independent.



*railways, *USA, *photograph, *1860s

The federal government brought two provinces into Confederation shortly after the completion of a transcontinental railway across the United States in 1869:
A. Saskatchewan and Alberta.
B. British Columbia and Manitoba.
C. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
D. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island.



*HBC, *Rupert's Land, *maps, *1860s

In 1869 Canada purchased the shaded area on the map from
A. Russia.
B. the USA.
C. the North West Company.
D. the Hudson's Bay Company.



*Red River, *Riel, *poster, *1870s

This poster, published in 1870, deals with the dispute between Ottawa and Louis Riel over the future of the Red River colony. It was likely produced in
A. Ontario.
B. Quebec.
C. British Columbia.
D. the Red River colony.



*Red River, *North West, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *Miss Canada, *Manitoba, *cartoons, *1870s



In this illustration the woman in the centre represents the Red River settlement. She is depicted as
A. willing to join Canada.
B. eager to join the USA.
C. eager to become independent.
D. uncertain as to her course of action.


*Scott, *Riel, *Manitoba, *Red River, *illustrations, *1870s

The event depicted in this sketch had a major effect on Canadian history. It was drawn many years after the event to show the execution of
A. Louis Riel.
B. Thomas Scott.
C. Abraham Lincoln.
D. Thomas D'Arcy McGee.


*Riel, *Scott, *Red River, *Fort Garry, *illustrations, *1870s

On March 3, 1870, Louis Riel's provisional government in the Red River settlement court-martialed Thomas Scott. Scott was found guilty of treason and executed the next day. This drawing was likely produced to
A. support capital punishment.
B. gain sympathy for Riel in Quebec.
C. gain sympathy for Scott in Ontario.
D. promote settlement in the North West.


*Fenians, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *cartoons, *1870s

This cartoon deals with the Fenians, a group of Irish Americans who sought to harm Great Britain by attacking Canada from bases in the United States. The cartoon most likely appeared in a newspaper published by the
A. Irish.
B. Fenians.
C. Americans.
D. Canadians. 


*Confederation, *UK, *Britannia, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *cartoons, *1870s

The cartoonist is saying that Canada
A. should join the USA.
B. is able to defend itself.
C. is being given to the USA. 
D. is in danger of being lost by Britain.


*Confederation, *annexation, *UK, *Britannia, *Cartier, *Macdonald, *British Empire, *cartoons, *1870s

The accompanying cartoon was published in the Canadian Illustrated News on July 9, 1870. Which one of the following statements best summarizes the point made by the cartoonist?
A. The Canadians oppose a change in their relationship to Britain.
B. The Canadians are certain to be shipwrecked on Annexation Rock.
C. The British know that the Canadians will easily reach Point Independence.
D. The British government is prepared to risk the loss of Canada to the USA.


*manifest destiny, *Alaska, *BC, *USA, *UK, *quotations. *1860s

The following quotations deal with what is now western Canada. Which one best explains the meaning of the term "manifest destiny"?

A. "It was the American purchase of Alaska...which helped to unleash the forces which would ensure its [B.C.'s] entry into Canadian Confederation."
David Joseph Mitchell

B. "I believe that if anything under the heaven be fated, it is that the American flag shall wave over every foot of this American Continent in the course of time."
Senator Alexander Ramsey

C. "The immediate destiny of this colony [B.C.] is either that of an important province of a great and successful British American Empire, or a state of the powerful Republic."
The British Colonist, 1870

D. "There is a struggle going on between Britain and the United States for the possession of the northern portion of this Continent. Happily it is not one of guns and bayonets, but of ideas and national progress."
The Hamilton Spectator, 1868


*Red River, *Winnipeg, *First Nations, *Confederation, *Hind, *paintings, *1870s

Artist William Hind was living in the Red River settlement at the time the area was negotiating its entry into Confederation. All but one cultural difference is shown in this painting. Which one is missing?
A. clothing.
B. technology.
C. agriculture.
D. transportation.


*Red River, *Manitoba, *songs

"Come sit by my side if you love me,
 Do not hasten to bid me adieu,
 But remember the Red River Valley
 And the girl who has loved you so true."

The Red River valley referred to in the Canadian version of this folk song is in
A. Manitoba.
B. Saskatchewan.
C. Alberta.
D. British Columbia.


*San Juan Islands, *boundary disputes, *maps, *1870s

The accompanying map shows the San Juan Archipelago. The German emperor decided that the boundary between Canada and the United States should pass through
A. Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.
B. the Middle Channel and Douglas Channel.
C. Rosario Strait.
D. Haro Strait and Douglas Channel.


*statistics, *population, *BC, *1870s



The above population figures were compiled in
A. 1867
B. 1871
C. 1898
D. 1905


*National Policy, *Macdonald, *paintings, *1870s

This painting of Sir John A. Macdonald was commissioned by the N.P. Soap Company. However, when historians see the initials "N.P." they likely think of Macdonald's support for
A. native peoples.
B. the National Policy.
C. the Northwest Passage.
D. the National Progressive Party.


*Pacific Scandal, *Macdonald, *corruption, *Miss Canada, *cartoons, *1870s

The above cartoon deals with the 1873 Pacific Scandal. The cartoonist believed that
A. Macdonald's hands were clean.
B. most Canadians supported Macdonald.
C. Macdonald had disappointed Canadians.
D. Macdonald was right not to investigate charges of corruption.


*CPR, *Macdonald, *quotations, *1870s

"Until this grand work is completed our Dominion is little more than a geographical expression."
Sir John A. Macdonald, 1875

The "grand work" Macdonald referred to was the construction of the
A. Rideau Canal.
B. St. Lawrence Seaway.
C. Canadian Pacific Railway.
D. Parliament buildings in Ottawa.



*Confederation, *drawing, *1870s

This drawing was most likely completed in
A. 1867.
B. 1877.
C. 1907.
D. 1927.



*CPR,  *railways,  * Macdonald, *Mackenzie, * Chapleau, *Amor de Cosmos, *cartoon, 1870s

The people in the cartoon (from left to right) are opposition leader Alexander Mackenzie, Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, Secretary of State Adolphe Chapleau and Victoria member of parliament Amor de Cosmos. This cartoon reflects the view that the federal government policies in 1880 mostly benefitted
A. Quebec.
B. Ontario.
C. Manitoba.
D. British Columbia.



*CPR, *railways, *North West, *freight rates, *cartoons, *1880s

The family in this cartoon feared that a railway monopoly would most likely result in an increase in
A. freight rates.
B. labour costs.
C. immigration.
D. unemployment.


*Macdonald, *Blake, *CPR, *cartoons, *1880s

In this cartoon Conservative prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald is the man on the left and Liberal opposition leader Edward Blake is the man on the right. The cartoon was drawn to
A. protest the cost of building the Canadian Pacific Railway.
B. praise Blake for his rigorous opposition to the construction of the railway.
C. praise Macdonald for his vision and determination in building the railway.
D. show that Blake could have built the railway for less money than Macdonald.


*North West, *women, *cartoons, *1880s

What likely inspired the 1882 cartoon entitled "This Market Report May Be Relied Upon"?
A. the status of women in the North West
B. the shortage of women in the North West
C. the surplus of women in the North West
D. the diversity of women in the North West


*Macdonald, *cartoons, *Pacific Scandal, *National Policy, *1880s

Grip, Toronto, 29 April 1882

These cartoons of Sir John A. Macdonald deal with
A. free trade and Imperial preference.
B. the Pacific Scandal and the National Policy.
C. opposition to the CPR and support for the CPR.
D. amnesty for Louis Riel and the execution of Louis Riel.


*CPR, *railways, *maps, *1880s

This map shows a proposed route of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Rocky Mountains. The artist evidently favoured
A. the proposed route.
B. a different route.
C. slowing construction.
D. stopping construction.


*Winnipeg, *slogans. *1880s

Which of the following slogans refers to Winnipeg?
A. The Gateway to the Orient
B. The Gateway to the North
C. The Gateway to the Canadian West
D. The Gateway to the Dominion


*Manitoba, *immigration, *quotations, *1880s

"The climate of Manitoba consists of seven months of Arctic weather and five months of cold weather."
Settler's Guide to the North-West (1882), Northern Pacific Railway Company, New York

The intent of this statement is to
A. discourage settlement in the west.
B. prepare settlers for life in the west.
C. provide reasons to support annexation.
D. accurately describe the weather of Manitoba.


*Northwest Territories, *Riel Rebellion, *cartoons, *1880s

In the 1883 cartoon entitled "I Stand for Justice…" the cartoonist
A. opposes the demands of the North West Territories.
B. is satisfied with the status of the North West Territories.
C. is shocked by the demands of the North West Territories.
D. sympathizes with the demands of the North West Territories.


*Northwest Territories, *immigration, *First Nations, *buffalo, *reservations, *1870s, *1880s

Three of the following are causes and one is a result. Which is the result?
A. The buffalo were exterminated.
B. The native people moved onto reservations.
C. The government signed treaties with the native people.
D. White settlement in the North West Territories increased.


*CPR, *railways, *Fraser, *paintings, *1880s

The primary purpose of the artist who did the accompanying painting of the Canadian Pacific Railway was to
A. stimulate tourist traffic on the railway.
B. glamorize the construction of the railway.
C. minimize the obstacles encountered during construction of the railway.
D. illustrate the important role played by Chinese workers in the construction of the railway.


*First Nations, *Riel Rebellion, *immigration, *Macdonald, *cartoons, *1880s

The point being made by the cartoonist is that the native people will
A. not be allowed to stand in the way of settlement.
B. be protected from the settlers by the police.
C. benefit from the advancement of civilization.
D. be given large reserves on the Pacific coast to make up for their lost land in the prairies.


*First Nations, *bias, *quotations

"I could 'paint' you two pictures. The one would represent the bright side of Indian life, with its feathers, lances, gayly dressed and mounted 'banneries', fights, buffalo hunting, etc. The other the dark side, showing the filth, vermin, poverty, nakedness, suffering, starvation, superstition, etc. Both would be equally true-neither exaggerated, or distorted; both totally dissimilar."
Henry Boller

Henry Boller's statement allows us to conclude that historians
A. find paintings of little value.
B. are not always objective in their reporting.
C. find photographs more useful than paintings.
D. rarely get an accurate picture of Native life from paintings.


*Riel, *Macdonald, *Riel Rebellion, *cartoons, *1880s

In July 1885 a six-man jury found Louis Riel guilty of treason punishable by death. The prime minister was urged to grant Riel a pardon. This cartoon shows the difficulty Macdonald faced in coming up with a decision that would please
A. French supporters in Quebec.
B. English supporters in Ontario.
C. Metis and French in the West.
D. English and French supporters.


*Riel Rebellion, *Riel, *justice, *Northwest Territories, *North West, *cartoons, *1880s

The cartoonist asserts that justice in the North West is
A. for sale.
B. impartial.
C. demanding.
D. non-existent.


*Riel Rebellion, *Metis, *magazine covers, *1880s


This 1885 magazine cover depicting Miss Canada supports
A. the Metis.
B. Great Britain.
C. First Nations.
D. the government.


*Riel, *Riel Rebellion, *telegrams, *memoirs, *1880s

Historians interested in writing about the Riel Rebellion of 1885 would likely consider telegrams sent by General Middleton during the rebellion to be more reliable than his memoirs because they would be
A. less biased than memoirs.
B. more interesting than memoirs.
C. more informative than memoirs.
D. written closer to the time of the event.


*CPR, *quotations, *Craigellachie, *1880s

"Stand fast, Craigellachie!"
"All I can say is that the work has been done well in every way."
The National Dream 1871-1881 and The Last Spike 1881-1885.

The above statements and book titles refer to the building of the
A. Canadian Pacific Railway.
B. Northern Pacific Railway.
C. British Columbia Railway.
D. Canadian National Railway.


*CPR, *Van Horne, *quotations, *1880s

"To have built that road would have made a Canadian out of the German Emperor."
Sir William Van Horne

The "road" referred to above is
A. the Canadian Pacific Railroad.
B. the Cariboo Wagon Road.
C. the Trans-Canada Highway.
D. Yonge Street.


*Riel, *North West, *quotations, *1880s

"Riel was fairly tried, honestly convicted, laudably condemned, and justly executed."

This statement was most likely made by
A. a Cree from Manitoba.
B. a Metis leader from Saskatchewan.
C. a French Canadian Catholic from Quebec.
D. an English Canadian Protestant from Ontario.


*Riel Rebellion, *Macdonald, *Montreal, *Queen Victoria, *illustrations, *1880s

On November 28, 1885, Montrealers burned Sir John A. Macdonald in effigy at the base of a statue of Queen Victoria. What event prompted this action?
A. the Pacific Scandal. 
B. the National Policy.
C. the execution of Louis Riel.
D. the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.


*Laurier, *Riel, *Montreal, *Riel Rebellion, *quotations, *1880s

"Had I been born on the banks of the Saskatchewan, I would myself have shouldered a musket to fight against this neglect of government and the shameless greed of speculators."

The man who made this speech at the Champs de Mars in Montreal on November 22, 1885, later became Canada's first Canadien prime minister. His name was
A. Wilfrid Laurier.
B. Louis St. Laurent.
C. Louis Joseph Papineau.
D. George-Etienne Cartier.


*Laurier, *Chretien, *nationalism, *quotations, *1880s

"We are French Canadians, but our country is not confined to the territory overshadowed by the citadel of Quebec; our country is Canada, it is the whole of what is covered by the British flag on the American continent, the fertile lands bordered by the Bay of Fundy, the Valley of the St. Lawrence, the region of the Great Lakes, the prairies of the West, the Rocky Mountains, the lands washed by the famous ocean where breezes are said to be as sweet as the breezes of the Mediterranean."
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, 1885

Which of the following Canadians holds views which most closely resemble those of Laurier?
A. Paul Martin.
B. Jean Chrétien
C. Jacques Parizeau.
D. Lucien Bouchard.


*Confederation, *gold rush, *CPR, *Halifax, *chronology

What is the correct chronological order of the following historical events?
a. Confederation
b. the Fraser River gold rush
c. the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway
d. the founding of Halifax

A. d, a, b, c
B. a, b, c, d
C. d, b, a, c
D. b, d, a, c



*Riel, *Blake, *Riel Rebellion, *Macdonald, *quotation, *1880s

“Had there been no neglect there would have been no rebellion. If no rebellion, then no arrest. If no arrest, then no trial. If no trial, then no condemnation. If no condemnation, then no execution. They, therefore, who were responsible for the first are responsible for every link in that fatal chain.”
Edward Blake, 1885

Edward Blake was blaming the Rebellion of 1885 on this man:
A. Louis Riel.
B. Wilfrid Laurier.
C. Alexander Mackenzie.
D. John A. Macdonald.



*railways, *USA, *CPR, *maps, *1880s

The map showing transcontinental railways was probably published around
A. 1850.
B. 1867.
C. 1885.
D. 1917.


*CPR, *Northwest Territories, *population, *maps, *1880s

The map was drawn to illustrate the population of the prairies in the year
A. 1867.
B. 1870.
C. 1886.
D. 1914.


*Macdonald, *Blake, *labour, *suffrage, *cartoons, *1880s

In this cartoon Liberal leader Edward Blake is on the left, a worker (indicated by the square hat) in the centre and Conservative leader John A. Macdonald on the right. The cartoon supports
A. armed rebellion.
B. Macdonald's policies.
C. an extension of the vote.
D. the formation of trade unions.


*protective tariffs, *tariffs, *National Policy, *labour, *cartoons, *1880s

This cartoon is critical of
A. free trade.
B. gluttony.
C. capitalism.
D. the protective tariff.


*labour, *women, *cartoons, *1880s

The cartoonist supports the concept of
A. status quo.
B. fair wages.
C. laissez-faire.
D. women's rights.


*Confederation, *imperialism, *poems, *1880s

"Through the young giant's mighty limbs, that stretch from sea to sea,
There runs a throb of conscious life-of waking energy.
From Nova Scotia's misty coast to far Columbia's shore,
She wakes - a band of scattered homes and colonies no more,
But a young nation, with her life full beating in her breast,
A noble future in her eyes - the Britain of the West."

The above verse was most likely written in
A. 1759.
B. 1867.
C. 1885.
D. 1945.


*Macdonald, *Dewdney, *First Nations, *Christianity, *treaty, *1890s

The cartoonist
A. believes that treaties were too generous.
B. takes pride in living in a Christian country.
C. is critical of the government's treatment of native people.
D. believes that Macdonald should increase payments to the contractor.


The cartoon entitled "Christian Statesmanship" suggests that
A. the treaties negotiated with the First Nations people were over-generous.
B. Macdonald is bribing the contractor to look after the First Nations people.
C. a Christian government was doing a good job of looking after the First Nations people.
D. most of the money meant for the First Nations people ended up in the hands of contractors.


*Laurier, *Mercier, *Macdonald, *cartoons, *1890s

The three men in the cartoon are (from left to right) Wilfrid Laurier, Quebec prime minister Honoré Mercier, and Sir John A. Macdonald. Laurier and Macdonald hope to
A. gain votes by pleasing Quebec.
B. promote French Canadian nationalism.
C. show their gratitude for Quebec policies.
D. receive a subsidy and other benefits from Quebec.


*National Policy, *protective tariffs, *tariffs, *posters, *1890s

The accompanying 1891 poster strongly supports
A. reciprocity.
B. free trade.
C. a revenue tariff.
D. a protective tariff.


*elections, *Macdonald, *National Policy, *reciprocity, *tariffs, *slogans, *1890s

The following slogans were used by the Liberals in the 1891 election:
"Liberty to Commerce"
"Tariff Reduction and Reciprocity"
"Protection is Legalized Robbery"
"The Tory Tariff Oppresses the Farmer"
"Protection is a National Folly and a National Crime"

These statements were a clear attack on which of Sir John A. Macdonald's programs?
A. the National Policy.
B. A strong British connection.
C. The expansion of Canada from coast to coast.
D. The formation of the North West Mounted Police.


*Macdonald, *National Policy, *posters, *1890s


The above poster was designed to
A. help Macdonald win re-election.
B. promote nationalism and militarism.
C. attack Macdonald's age and outdated programs.
D. encourage cooperation between business and labour.



*National Policy, *reciprocity, *cartoon, *1890s

This election poster was designed to
A. get manufacturers to vote for free trade.
B.  illustrate the powers of the labour movement.
C. reduce Canadian fears of American competition.
D. convince workers to vote for protective trade barriers.



*reciprocity, *protection, *annexation, *National Policy, *Laurier, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *cartoons, *1890s

The above cartoon was drawn during the 1891 election campaign [Laurier is the man on the left]. The artist was likely a supporter of
A. annexation.
B. reciprocity.
C. the Liberal party.
D. the Conservative party.



*First Nations,  *assimilation, *quotation, *1890s

How would we white people like it if because we were weak, and another people more powerful than ourselves had possession of our country, we were obliged to give up our children to go to schools of this more powerful people–KNOWING that they were taken from us for the very purpose of weaning them from the old loves and the old associations–if we found that they were most unwillingly allowed to come back to us for the short summer holidays; and when they came were dressed in the peculiar costume of our conquerors, and were talking their language instead of the dear old tongue.
The Canadian Indian , March 1891

The author of this passage is questioning the policy known as
A. assimilation.
B. brotherhood.
C. accommodation.
D. multiculturalism.



*lawyers, *women, *poems, *1890s

"I think all lawyers must agree
On keeping our profession free
From females whose admission would
Result in anything but good.

Because it yet has to be shown
That men are fit to hold their own.
In such a contest, I've no doubt,
We'd some of us be crowded out.

In other spheres of business life
Much discontent 'mong men is rife,
For women quick, alert and deft
Supplant their rivals right and left."

The accompanying poem appeared in Grip magazine in 1892. Which of the following statements best reflects the point of view of the poem?
A. A woman's place is in the home.
B. Women would not make good lawyers.
C. Male lawyers fear competition from female lawyers.
D. Women should not be encouraged to enter the legal profession.


*racism, *Chinese, *labour, *posters, *1890s

This poster, produced in the 1890s in BC, was designed to promote the sale of
A. sugar refined in China by white labour.
B. sugar refined in Canada by white labour.
C. sugar refined in China by Chinese labour.
D. sugar refined in Canada by Chinese labour.


*Manitoba Schools Question, *Laurier, *cartoons, *1890s

The Manitoba Schools Question referred to in the cartoon "Wilfrid and the Porcupine" dealt with
A. school funding.
B. private schools.
C. residential schools.
D. French language rights


*National Policy, *Tupper, *Macdonald, *protectionism, *1890s

This poster was produced during the election of 1896. Hugh Macdonald, the son of Sir John A. Macdonald, was seeking election to parliament. The "old principle" Tupper and Macdonald support was known as
A. manifest destiny.
B. commercial union.
C. the national policy. 
D. unrestricted reciprocity.



*National Policy, *Macdonald, *Tupper, *labour, *cartoon, *poster,  *1890s


The poster and cartoon both deal with the
A. Just Society.
B. Pacific Scandal.
C. National Policy.
D. Monroe Doctrine.



*Klondike, *gold rush, *Yukon, *Carmack, *quotations, *1890s

"TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN: I do, this day, locate and claim, by right of discovery, five hundred feet, running up stream from this notice. Located this 17th day of August, 1896."
G. W. Carmack

This statement of claim started a gold rush to
A. Ontario.
B. the Yukon.
C. California.
D. British Columbia.


*Laurier, *Queen Victoria, *cartoons, 1890s

Sir Wilfrid Laurier received a knighthood during Queen Victoria's diamond Jubilee in 1897. The cartoon pays tribute to Laurier's
A. love of Canada.
B. fondness for children.
C. ability to unite Canadians.
D. support for The Maple Leaf Forever as the national anthem.


*Laurier, *UK, *cartoons, *Diamond Jubilee, *cable, *maps, *1890s


The above cartoon shows Wilfrid Laurier and the connection of Canada by cable to Australia and Britain. It was most likely drawn in the year
A. 1858.
B. 1867.
C. 1897.
D. 1917.



*suffrage, *women's suffrage, *cartoon, *1890s

Ontario's Premier Hardy did not want to give women the vote because they would support
A. free trade.
B. temperance.
C. prohibition. 
D. law and order.



*plebiscites, *referendums, *prohibition, *statistics, *1890s

Based on the 1898 vote
A. the majority of Canadians supported prohibition.
B. the greatest support for prohibition came from Quebec.
C. the majority of Canadians who voted supported prohibition.
D. the weakest support for prohibition came from PEl and Nova Scotia.


*prohibition, *statistics, *plebiscites, *referendums, *1890s

In view of the results, Laurier felt that Canada could best be kept united by
A. implementing prohibition immediately.
B. calling an election and campaigning for prohibition.
C. calling an election and campaigning against prohibition.
D. using the excuse of the low participation rate to do nothing.


*Laurier, *Boer War, *cartoons, *1890s

This cartoonist shows Laurier as a
A. hero.
B. militarist.
C. hypocrite.
D. monarchist.


*Boer War, *nationalism, *imperialism, *UK, *slogans, *1890s

The following slogans were popular during the Boer War:

"Britannia Rules the Waves."
"Britons Never Shall Be Slaves."
"Trade Follows the Flag."
"What We Have We Hold! What We Don't Have, We Take."

Taken together they are good examples of
A. socialism and nationalism. 
B. nationalism and imperialism.
C. internationalism and militarism.
D. imperialism and internationalism.


*Boer War, *UK, *South Africa, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *music, *1890s

This recruitment song was most likely written in
A. 1899.
B. 1918.
C. 1939.
D. 1945.


*Boer War, *imperialism, *militarism, *colonialism, *music, *1900s

This sheet music cover best illustrates the concept of
A. nationalism.
B. imperialism.
C. monarchism.
D. internationalism.


*prohibition, *gambling, *cartoons, *1900s

This cartoon appears to reflect the viewpoint of the publication
A. One Big Union (Labour).
B. Saturday Night (Business).
C. The War Cry (Salvation Army).
D. The Liberal Monthly (Liberal Party).



*head tax, *Chinese, *immigration, *racism, *cartoon, *1900

This cartoon refers to
A. a tax on Chinese immigrants.
B. a corrupt immigration system.
C. a quota system for Chinese immigrants.
D. an act that excludes Chinese immigrants.



*Manifest Destiny, *John Bull, *Uncle Sam, *imperialism, *cartoons, *1900s

This cartoon illustrates the policy known as
A. Manifest Destiny.
B. The New Deal.
C. The Good Neighbour Policy.
D. The Alliance for Progress.


*immigration, *Montreal, *cartoons, *1900s


The artist drew this cartoon to
A. ridicule misinformed British settlers.
B. make the world aware of Canadian culture.
C. demonstrate the extremes of the Canadian climate.
D. promote the immigration of British settlers to Canada.



*immigration, *cartoon, *1900s

This cartoon was drawn to
A. educate immigrants.
B. promote winter sports.
C. encourage immigration.
D. make fun of British immigrants.



*Laurier, *cartoons, *1900s

The cartoonist is asserting that Laurier
A. believed in animal rights.
B. changed his identity for political advantage.
C. supported people's right to smoke.
D. was more at home in England than in France.


*Boer War, *Chamberlain, *cartoons, *imperialism, *1900s

In this Boer War cartoon, British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain is portrayed as an octopus. The cartoonist chose to represent him this way to:
A. show the unity of the British empire.
B. emphasize the greed of the British Empire.
C. illustrate Britain's weak hold over her colonies.
D. acknowledge the complexity of Chamberlain's job.


*Boer War, *imperialism, *postcards, 1900s

These postcards promoted
A. freedom.
B. imperialism.
C. republicanism.
D. internationalism.


*British Empire, *flag, *Union Jack, *poems

THE EMPIRE'S FLAG
"It's only a small bit of bunting,
It's only an old colored rag.
Yet thousands have died for its honor
And shed their best blood for the flag...

It floats o'er New Zealand, Australia,
Over Africa, India, Hong Kong,
Over Canada; proudly proclaiming
That we all to the Empire belong."

The flag referred to in the poem was the
A. Union Jack.
B. Maple Leaf.
C. Fleur-de-lis.
D. Royal Standard.


*Maple Leaf Forever, *Wolfe, *imperialism, *songs

Use the accompanying verse to answer the following question.

"In days of yore, from Britain's shore,
Wolfe, the dauntless hero, came,
And planted firm Britannia's flag on Canada's fair domain.
Here may it wave, our boast, our pride,
And joined in love together
The Thistle, Shamrock, Rose entwine
The Maple Leaf forever."

The main reason why "The Maple Leaf Forever" did not become our national anthem was that
A. It was too patriotic for Canadian tastes.
B. It refers to the flag of the United Kingdom.
C. It reminds French Canadians of a English victory.
D. The maple leaf was not considered an appropriate national emblem.


*immigration, *North West, *posters, *1900s


The accompanying Canadian government poster was designed to
A. lure new settlers to the North West.
B. alert prospective settlers to the vastness of Canada.
C. encourage people living in the Prairies to move to British Columbia.
D. encourage people to leave the North West.


*Klondike, *gold rush, *poems, *1900s

"A bunch of the boys were whooping it up in the Malamute saloon;
The kid that handles the music-box was hitting a rag-time tune;
Back of the bar, in a solo game, sat Dangerous Dan McGrew.
And watching his luck was his light-o-love, the lady that's known as Lou."
Robert W. Service

The Malamute saloon was located in
A. the Yukon.
B. the Maritimes.
C. British Columbia.
D. Northern Ontario.


*New Brunswick, *Saint John, *photographs, *1900s

This photograph of Saint John, New Brunswick, was likely taken in the
A 1880s.
B 1900s.
C 1920s.
D 1940s.


*immigration, *North West, *illustrations, *1900s

The drawing "Beginning a Home" was used to illustrate a pamphlet produced by the government in 1903. The ministry responsible likely dealt with
A. health.
B. industry.
C. immigration.
D. transportation.


*Alaska, *boundary disputes, *Skagway, *Yukon, *maps

Which boundary shown on the map did Canada claim in the Alaska Boundary Dispute of 1903?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4


*Alaska, *boundary disputes, *Skagway, *Yukon, *maps

The key city in the Alaska Boundary Dispute was
A. Juneau.
B. Skagway.
C. Prince Rupert.
D. Whitehorse.


*Alaska, *boundary disputes, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *Jean Baptiste, *Johnny Canuck, *cartoons, *1900s

The cartoon entitled "The Grab-All" was drawn in response to
A. the American Civil War.
B. Canadian Confederation.
C. the USA's purchase of Alaska.
D. the Alaska Boundary Dispute.


*Alaska, *boundary disputes, *UK, *John Bull, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *Jean Baptiste, *1900s, cartoons

The main issue dealt with in this cartoon is
A. prohibition.
B. gun control.
C. drinking age.
D. political betrayal.


*Alaska, *boundary disputes, *Ashburton treaty, *Oregon Territory, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *UK, *John Bull, *cartoons, *1900s

This cartoon deals with
A. trade agreements.
B. boundary disputes.
C. natural resources.
D. American investment.


*nationalism, *British Empire, *Union Jack, *Johnson, *USA, *poems, *1900s

"The Dutch may have their Holland, the Spanish have their Spain,
The Yankee to the south of us must south of us remain;
For not a man dare lift a hand against the men who brag
That they were born in Canada beneath the British flag."
Pauline Johnson, 1903

Pauline Johnson was clearly
A. a nationalist.
B. an imperialist.
C. an isolationist.
D. an internationalist.


*immigration, *North West, *multiculturalism, *Uncle Sam, *Johnny Canuck, *UK, *US, *John Bull, *illustrations, *1900s


There are many different nationalities in the 1903 illustration entitled "Now Then, All Together!" because
A. the artist opposed immigration.
B. Canada sells its wheat all over the world.
C. people from all over the world settled in Canada.
D. all the nations want to get their wheat as cheaply as possible.


The illustration "Now Then, All Together" from a government pamphlet appears to favour
A. selective immigration.
B. a ban on immigration.
C. unrestricted immigration.
D. Anglophone immigration.


*UK, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *Germany, *Miss Canada, *immigration, *1900s


Study the cartoon entitled "The New Belle." In 1903 Canada was attracting a great deal of attention as a result of increasing
A. military strength.
B. wheat surpluses.
C. independence.
D. immigration.


*immigration, *USA, *Uncle Sam, *North West, *illustrations, *1900s

This illustration was drawn to show that
A. good fences make good neighbours.
B. the Americans intended to take over Western Canada.
C. the American government approved of emigration to Canada.
D. the American government disapproved of emigration to Canada.



*immigration, *USA, *Laurier, *Uncle Sam, *cartoon, *1900s

1904, University of Alberta

In addition to the elements suggested by the magnet, the Americans were drawn by the lure of
A. land.
B. minerals.
C. oil and gas.
D. gun control.



*head tax, *Laurier, *Chinese, *cartoons, *1900s

Laurier's $500 poll tax was designed to
A. raise tax revenue.
B. limit immigration.
C. aid railway construction.
D. appease the United States.


*patriotism, *Sifton, *quotations, *1900s

"We cannot look into the future; we cannot foresee the destiny of Canada, but sir, on this we rest well assured: that Canada has not been led through the perils and difficulties of its chequered career, that six million people have not been placed in command of the northern half of this continent with all its vast resources, that we shall occupy an ignoble and insignificant position amongst the nations of the earth."
Clifford Sifton, 1904

The above statement best illustrates the concept of
A. patriotism.
B. imperialism.
C. capitalism.
D. manifest destiny.


*GTPR, *Laurier, *leaflets, *1900s, *GTPR, *Laurier, *leaflets, *1900s

The primary target of this leaflet is
A. the common people.
B. Liberal contractors.
C. the prime minister.
D. the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.



*UK, *defence, *navy, *naval dispute, *cartoon, *1900s

This cartoon is most critical of:
A. Canada.
B. Germany.
C. Australia.
D. the United Kingdom.



*immigration, *posters, *CPR, *1900s

One important part of the settlement process not addressed by this poster is the
A. supply of land.
B. availability of various resources.
C. hardships involved in homesteading.
D. cost involved in acquiring farmland.


*Confederation, *Alberta, *Saskatchewan, *Johnny Canuck, *cartoons, *1900s

The above cartoon, published in 1905, was most likely drawn to commemorate
A. the unity of western and eastern Canada.
B. the entry of Alberta and Saskatchewan as provinces.
C. the mediation of disputes between ranchers and farmers.
D. the end of a boundary dispute between Alberta and Saskatchewan.


*law and order, *immigration, *Johnny Canuck, *cartoons, *1900s

The most appropriate title for this cartoon is
A. "Justice delayed is justice denied."
B. "Peace, order and good government."
C. "Maintiens le droit [uphold the right]."
D. "A mare usque ad mare [from sea to sea]."



*National Policy, *tariff, *cartoon, *1900s

This cartoonist supports
A. higher tariffs.
B. lower tariffs.
C. business interests.
D. the National Policy.



*Confederation, *Alberta, *Saskatchewan, *maps, *1900s

Which of the following pairs of provinces entered Confederation in the same year?
A. 1, 2
B. 2, 3
C. 4, 5
D. 8, 10


*Riel, *Macdonald, *Ottawa, *Confederation, *chronology

Arrange the following events in chronological order (earliest to latest):
1. Louis Riel is hanged.
2. Sir John A. Macdonald dies.
3. the capital of Canada is moved to Ottawa.
4. Saskatchewan enters Confederation.

A. 3, 1, 2, 4
B. 1, 3, 2, 4
C. 4, 1, 2, 3
D. 2, 3, 1, 2


*protective tariffs, *protectionism, *tariffs, *quotations, *1900s

"The United States erected a tariff wall [in 1866] that Canada could not climb... The high tariff... gave impetus to Canada's nationhood. It compelled just what Confederation lacked–cohesiveness... without it Canadian resources would have gone to build up American cities, American ports and American railroads. Instead of having three transcontinental railroads running east and west, the Dominion would have had hundreds of roads running south, feeding the products of Canada's forests and farms and mines into American cities. The American tariff was a good thing for Canada."
Miss Agnes Laut, The Canadian Courier, 9 March 1907.

The writer approved of a policy known as
A. free trade.
B. reciprocity.
C. laissez faire.
D. protectionism.


*discrimination, *racism, *Japanese, *immigration, *labour, *cartoons, *1900s

The man in the doorway is most anxious to protect his
A. identity.
B. language.
C. employment.
D. neighbourhood.


*CPR, *CNR, *railways, *cartoons, *1900s

This cartoon was drawn to
A. favour cities over rural areas.
B. support railway construction.
C. protest the high cost of railways.
D. favour people living in the country.


*prohibition, *temperance, *cartoons, *1900s

This cartoon, produced when Canada was contemplating prohibition, suggests that
A. interested groups will easily reach an agreement.
B. political parties are free to represent the public interest.
C. political parties will be reluctant to implement prohibition.
D. liquor interests have more influence than temperance interests.


*Vancouver, *advertisements, *1900s

This advertisement from Henderson's Vancouver Directory, 1908, emphasizes Vancouver's
A. size.
B. imports.
C. location.
D. climate.


*imperial defence, *British Empire, *UK, *Britannia, *illustrations, *1900s

This illustration was drawn in support of
A. internationalism.
B. imperial defence.
C. imperial expansion.
D. colonial independence.


*RCN, *navy, *Borden, *Laurier, *UK, *John Bull, *cartoons, *1900s


This cartoon
A supports Laurier's plans for a Canadian navy.
B makes fun of Laurier's plans for a Canadian navy.
C shows Britain's support for Canada's naval policy.
D shows Canada's support for Britain's naval policy.



*navy, *UK, *John Bull, *Germany, *USA, *cartoon, *1900s

The cartoonist
A. celebrates Canada’s status as a major power.
B. supports Laurier’s plans for a Canadian navy.
C. makes fun of Laurier’s plans for a Canadian navy.
D. fears that Laurier’s plans will endanger the lives of Canadians.



*agriculture, *immigration, *graphs, *1900s

The remarkable increase in the wheat yield of Canada from 1889 to 1909 was due primarily to
A. the First World War.
B. a similar increase in immigration.
C. the entry of Alberta and Saskatchewan into Confederation.
D. the driving of the last spike on the Canadian Pacific Railway.


*RCN, *navy, *nationalism, *Laurier, *speeches, *1910s

"This policy is in the best tradition of the Liberal party. This policy is the latest link in the long chain of events which, following the principles laid down by the Reformers of old times, Baldwin and Lafontaine, step by step, stage by stage, have brought Canada into the position it now occupies, that is to say, the rank, dignity and status of a nation within the British Empire."
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, House of Commons Debates, 3 February 1910

Laurier was defending his decision to
A. build and man a Canadian navy.
B. give Britain money to expand the Royal Navy.
C. build and man naval vessels to be controlled by Britain.
D. build and man naval vessels to be controlled by Canada in peacetime and Britain in wartime.


*reciprocity, *free trade, *CMA, *protective tariffs, *tariffs, *cartoons, *1910s

The cartoonist who drew "Putting on the Screws" likely favoured the concept of
A. free trade.
B. protection for industry.
C. deregulation of the banks.
D. privatization of the railways.


*RCN, *navy, *Laurier, *Wilhelm II, *cartoons, *1910s

The cartoonist suggests that
A. Laurier's proposed navy will not be taken seriously.
B. Laurier should be proud of his proposed navy.
C. Kaiser Wilhelm II is worried about Canada's proposed navy.
D. Canadians should support Laurier's plans for a Canadian navy.


*prohibition, *temperance, *1910s

The card depicted above was likely issued to promote the cause of
A. nutrition.
B. religion.
C. temperance.
D. suffrage.


*First Nations, *Nisga'a, *land claims, *cartoons, *1910s

The above cartoon, published in 1910, illustrates an early example of
A. native blockades.
B. violent confrontation.
C. First Nations surrender.
D. aboriginal land claims.


*drugs, *illustrations, *1910s

The stairs lead to
A. hope.
B. salvation.
C. fulfillment.
D. addiction.


*Senate, *cartoons, *1910s

This cartoon portrayed senators as unfit to hold veto powers as they were
A. too old.
B. grossly overpaid.
C. political appointees.
D. representative of special interests.


*manifest destiny, *reciprocity, *elections, *quotations, *1910s

"I am for it because I hope to see the day when the American flag will float over every square foot of the British North American possessions clear to the North Pole."
Champ Clark, 1911

"It" in the above statement refers to
A. reciprocity.
B. conscription.
C. Confederation.
D. annexation manifesto.


*nationalism, *Bourassa, *Laurier, *British Empire, *independence, *quotations, *1910s

"We are loyal to the British Crown and will defend the Empire in Canada with the last drop of our blood, but we are free and independent and no one - not Laurier or even His Majesty - has the right to ask us to go beyond our shores."
Henri Bourassa, 1911

A sentiment not found in Bourassa's speech is
A. royalism.
B. imperialism.
C. nationalism.
D. internationalism.


*capitalism, *socialism, *communism, *posters, *1910s

The artist who created the accompanying poster believed that the capitalist system was
A. exploitive and oppressive.
B. based on liberty and equality.
C. arranged as a logical hierarchy.
D. supported by the efforts of a minority at the bottom.


*head tax, *Chinese, *immigration, *certificates, *1910s

The $500 head tax referred to in the above certificate was
A. paid to the government of China by all Chinese emigrants.
B. paid to all Chinese immigrants upon their arrival in Canada.
C. paid to the Canadian government by all Chinese immigrants.
D. purchased by Chinese immigrants as a kind of savings bond.



*navy, *Borden, *John Bull, *UK, *cartoon, *1910s

The character on the left is John Bull (United Kingdom) and the man on the right is Prime Minister Robert Borden. What does the cartoonist think about Borden’s proposal to give Britain $35,000,000 to purchase battleships? He is
A. strongly opposed.
B. moderately opposed.  
C. moderately supportive.
D. strongly supportive.



*primary sources, *bias, *photographs, *cartoons, *1910s

The cartoon suggests that an historian should
A. trust only eyewitness accounts.
B. never make use of photographs.
C. use written sources in preference to visual sources.
D. be as critical of photographs as of other documents.


*women's suffrage, *suffrage, *women, *labour, *child labour, *cartoons, *1910s

The women standing on the left want the seated woman to
A. share her wealth.
B. find jobs for the children.
C. accept a job in a factory.
D. fight for women's suffrage.


*Montreal, *recreation, *illustrations, *1910s

This drawing best supports the idea that typical Montrealers spend most of their money on
A. sports.
B. food and clothing.
C. smoking and drinking.
D. food and entertainment.


*coat of arms, *Nova Scotia

Which one of the accompanying coats of arms belonged to Nova Scotia?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D


*Borden, *regionalism, *tariffs, *protective tariffs, *cartoons, *1910s

The cartoonist who drew "Playing the Favourite" strongly suggests that Prime Minister Robert Borden favours
A. eastern industries.
B. western farmers.
C. the United States.
D. eastern farmers.


*Komagata Maru, *Borden, *Vancouver, *memoirs, *1910s

"A Japanese vessel, the Komagata Maru, has sailed from Shanghai with 5,000 Hindus for Vancouver."
Robert Borden, memoirs, 1938

"On May 23, 1914, the decaying freighter Komagata Maru, its holds jammed with a human cargo of 376 East Indians, dropped anchor in Vancouver Harbour."
Ted Ferguson, A White Man's Country, 1975 [Ferguson's figure is correct.]

The above quotations lead one to conclude that:
A. memoirs must be used with caution.
B. a primary source is better than a secondary source.
C. a secondary source is better than a primary source.
D. both primary and secondary sources can be flawed.


*Komagata Maru, *Sikhs, *labour, *cartoons, *1910s

The white labourer in the 1914 cartoon entitled "Such is Life" is primarily concerned about
A. the foreign customs of the Sikh.
B. the Sikh's threat to go on a hunger strike.
C. the ability of Canada to feed new immigrants.
D. the willingness of the Sikh to work for low wages.



*immigration, *labour, *BC, *cartoon, *1910s

The cartoonist takes the position that the main reason for restricting Asian immigration in 1914 was
A. racial harmony.
B. cultural unity.     
C. inexpensive labour.   
D. religious differences.



*First World War, *maps, *1910s

The black, white and grey boxes in the legend of the accompanying map should be labeled respectively
A. Triple Entente, Triple Alliance, Neutral.
B. Triple Alliance, Neutral, Triple Entente.
C. Neutral, Triple Entente, Triple Alliance.
D. Triple Entente, Neutral, Triple Alliance.


*RCN, *First World War, *slogans, *1910s

"One Fleet, One Flag, One Throne."

This slogan was used by which one of the following parties in the First World War?
A. Liberal.
B. Labour.
C. Nationaliste.
D. Conservative.


*First World War, *UK, *postcards, *1910s

This postcard was likely published at the onset of the
A. Riel Rebellion.
B. Boer War.
C. First World War.
D. Second World War.


*First World War, *victory bonds, *Wilhelm II, *cartoons, *1910s

The accompanying advertisement appeared in the Vancouver Daily Sun in October 1914. It was produced to promote enthusiasm for the
A. Riel Rebellion.
B. Boer War.
C. First World War.
D. Second World War.


*smoking, *tobacco, *First World War, *cartoons, *1910s

The accompanying 1915 cartoon supports the position that
A. smoking is a great danger to soldiers at the front.
B. the home front should be very concerned about the troops smoking.
C. some people at home did not understand what was really important.
D. troops should not be sent gifts which clogged the mail and took up space.


*Ypres, *First World War, *paintings, *1910s


Which two themes are emphasized in the painting of the Second Battle of Ypres in 1915?
A. valour and glory.
B. beauty and glory.
C. valour and horror.
D. beauty and horror.


*Ypres, *First World War, *McCrae, *poems, *primary sources, *1910s

The poem above was written in the trenches near Ypres, Belgium, during the
A. Napoleonic Wars.
B. Boer War.
C. First World War.
D. Second World War.


John McCrae's poem reflects the views of a
A. soldier.
B. pacifist.
C. internationalist.
D. conscientious objector.


John McCrae's poem is a good example of a
A. primary source.
B. secondary source.
C. tertiary source.
D. unreliable source.


*protective tariffs, *tariffs, *Laurier, *Borden, *business, *cartoons, *1910s

The cartoonist believes that Laurier and Borden are acting
A. in the national interest.
B. on behalf of big business.
C. on behalf of farmers.
D. on behalf of the western provinces.


*women's suffrage, *suffrage, *women, *McClung, *quotations, *1910s

A. "No woman, idiot, lunatic, or criminal shall vote."
Election Act of the Dominion of Canada, 1915

B. "Well, before the ladies sit here with us, I hope a new style of hats will have been introduced."
Sir Thomas Chapais, 1940

C. "If democracy is right, women should have it. If it isn't, men shouldn't."
May Clendenan, 1915

D. "The world has suffered long from too much masculinity and not enough humanity."
Nellie L. McClung

Which of the above statements best expresses the ideas of the women's suffrage movement?


*regionalism, *National Policy, *tariffs, *USA, *cartoons, *1890s, *1910s

Which one of the following statements is not supported by the cartoons? Both cartoonists
A. use cows to symbolize government.
B. are resentful of the large cities and business interests in the east.
C. believe that the profits from natural resource exploitation end up in the east.
D. believe that the "cow" works in the best interest of both the east and the west.


*First World War, *Laurier, *voluntary enlistment, *cartoons, *1910s

This cartoon portrayed Conservative minister of trade and commerce Foster and Liberal opposition leader Laurier as
A. slackers.
B. pacifists.
C. profiteers.
D. statesmen.



*First World War, *voluntary enlistment, *cartoon, *1910s

This drawing in the Royal Victoria College's 1916 annual promotes
A. marriage.
B. taxes on the rich.
C. conscription.
D. voluntary enlistment.



*First World War, *voluntary enlistment, *posters, *1910s

This poster was issued primarily to support
A. enlistees.
B. conscripts.
C. the monarchy.
D. conscientious objectors.


*women's suffrage, *suffrage, *women, *Alberta, *Women's Franchise Act, *cartoons, *1910s

Which legislation likely inspired the above political cartoon, published in Alberta in 1916?

In the 1800s railways were needed in the Eastern Townships to get to raw materials, for fast travel, the growth of businesses, and to fill in the desire to build more railway lines. In the past most people didn’t have cars to travel with or trucks to carry materials. Railways met this need. Today most of the railways and the stations have been shut down because they are not needed.

In 1836 the first railway in the Eastern Townships was built called the Champlain and St. Johns where it connected to the water route to New York via Lake Champlain. Three years later other lines were built to Ontario via Kingston. More railways were needed to help develop the Township area.

By 1900 the three railways that were mostly used were The Grand Trunk Railway (which became Canadian National), Quebec Central, and Canadian Pacific. Towns near railway stations grew faster.

Often the railway lines were shut down because of flooding and work needed to be done on the lines. All the different railway lines could not stay in business.

In the twentieth century lots of lines and stations closed. The Canadian Pacific railway bought the Southeastern Railway. The service to Highwater stopped in the mid 1960s. They had changed the name of Mansonville Station to Highwater in 1909 because of the yearly flooding on the Missisquoi River. The Canadian Pacific Railway also purchased the line through Foster, namely the Foster station. In the 1970s the Foster station was closed and the Lac Brome Tourist Bureau used the building. In Cowansville the railway station was torn down and today there is a restaurant called La Station on that site.

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